PrittBlanche 发布于1月前
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Liftbridge: Lightweight, fault-tolerant message streams

Liftbridge provides lightweight, fault-tolerant message streams by implementing a durable stream augmentation for the NATS messaging system . It extends NATS with a Kafka-like publish-subscribe log API that is highly available and horizontally scalable. Use Liftbridge as a simpler and lighter alternative to systems like Kafka and Pulsar or use it to add streaming semantics to an existing NATS deployment.

See the introduction post on Liftbridge and this post for more context and some of the inspiration behind it.

Table of Contents

Key Features

  • Log-based API for NATS
  • Replicated for fault-tolerance
  • Horizontally scalable
  • Wildcard subscription support
  • At-least-once delivery support
  • Message key-value support
  • Log compaction by key
  • Single static binary (~16MB)
  • Designed to be high-throughput (more on this to come)
  • Supremely simple


What is Liftbridge?

Liftbridge is a server that implements a durable, replicated message log for NATS . Clients create a named stream which is attached to a NATS subject. The stream then records messages on that subject to a replicated write-ahead log. Multiple consumers can read back from the same stream, and multiple streams can be attached to the same subject. Liftbridge provides a Kafka-like API in front of NATS.

Why was it created?

Liftbridge was designed to bridge the gap between sophisticated log-based messaging systems like Apacha Kafka and Apache Pulsar and simpler, cloud-native systems. There is no ZooKeeper or other unwieldy dependencies, no JVM, no complicated API, and client libraries are just gRPC . More importantly, Liftbridge aims to extend NATS with a durable, at-least-once delivery mechanism that upholds the NATS tenets of simplicity, performance, and scalability. Unlike NATS Streaming , it uses the core NATS protocol with optional extensions. This means it can be added to an existing NATS deployment to provide message durability with no code changes.

Why not NATS Streaming?

NATS Streaming provides a similar log-based messaging solution. However, it is an entirely separate protocol built on top of NATS. NATS is simply the transport for NATS Streaming. This means there is no "cross-talk" between messages published to NATS and messages published to NATS Streaming.

Liftbridge was built to augment NATS with durability rather than providing a completely separate system. NATS Streaming also provides a broader set of features such as durable subscriptions, queue groups, pluggable storage backends, and multiple fault-tolerance modes. Liftbridge aims to have a small API surface area.

The key features that differentiate Liftbridge are the shared message namespace, wildcards, log compaction, and horizontal scalability. NATS Streaming replicates channels to the entire cluster through a single Raft group. Liftbridge allows replicating to a subset of the cluster, and each stream is replicated independently. This allows the cluster to scale horizontally.

How does it scale?

Liftbridge scales horizontally by adding more brokers to the cluster and creating more streams which are distributed among the cluster. In effect, this splits out message routing from storage and consumption, which allows Liftbridge to scale independently and eschew subject partitioning. Alternatively, streams can join a load-balance group, which effectively load balances a NATS subject among the streams in the group without affecting delivery to other streams.

What about HA?

High availability is achieved by replicating the streams. When a stream is created, the client specifies a replicationFactor , which determines the number of brokers to replicate the stream. Each stream has a leader who is responsible for handling reads and writes. Followers then replicate the log from the leader. If the leader fails, one of the followers can set up to replace it. The replication protocol closely resembles that of Kafka, so there is much more nuance to avoid data consistency problems. See the replication protocol documentation for more details.

What about performance?

Benchmarks soon to come...

Is it production-ready?

No, this project is early and still evolving.


$ go get

Quick Start

Liftbridge currently relies on an externally running NATS server . By default, it will connect to a NATS server running on localhost. The --nats-servers flag allows configuring the NATS server(s) to connect to.

Also note that Liftbridge is clustered by default and relies on Raft for coordination. This means a cluster of three or more servers is normally run for high availability, and Raft manages electing a leader. A single server is actually a cluster of size 1. For safety purposes, the server cannot elect itself as leader without using the --raft-bootstrap-seed flag, which will indicate to the server to elect itself as leader. This will start a single server that can begin handling requests. Use this flag with caution as it should only be set on one server when bootstrapping a cluster.

$ liftbridge --raft-bootstrap-seed
INFO[2019-06-28 01:12:45] Server ID:        OoVo48CniWsjYzlgGtKLB6
INFO[2019-06-28 01:12:45] Namespace:        liftbridge-default
INFO[2019-06-28 01:12:45] Retention Policy: [Age: 1 week, Compact: false]
INFO[2019-06-28 01:12:45] Starting server on :9292...
INFO[2019-06-28 01:12:46] Server became metadata leader, performing leader promotion actions

Once a leader has been elected, other servers will automatically join the cluster. We set the --data-dir and --port flags to avoid clobbering the first server.

$ liftbridge --data-dir /tmp/liftbridge/server-2 --port=9293
INFO[2019-06-28 01:15:21] Server ID:        zsQToZyzR8WZfAUBiHSFvX
INFO[2019-06-28 01:15:21] Namespace:        liftbridge-default
INFO[2019-06-28 01:15:21] Retention Policy: [Age: 1 week, Compact: false]
INFO[2019-06-28 01:15:21] Starting server on :9293...

We can also bootstrap a cluster by providing the explicit cluster configuration. To do this, we provide the IDs of the participating peers in the cluster using the --raft-bootstrap-peers flag. Raft will then handle electing a leader.

$ liftbridge --raft-bootstrap-peers server-2,server-3


In addition to the command-line flags, Liftbridge can be fully configured using a configuration file which is passed in using the --config flag.

$ liftbridge --config liftbridge.conf

An example configuration file is shown below.

listen: localhost:9293
data.dir: /tmp/liftbridge/server-2
log.level: debug

# Define NATS cluster to connect to.
nats {
    servers: ["nats://localhost:4300", "nats://localhost:4301"]

# Specify message log settings.
log {
    retention.max.age: "24h"

# Specify cluster settings.
clustering { server-2
    raft.logging: true
    raft.bootstrap.seed: true
    replica.max.lag.time: "20s"

See the configuration documentation for full details on server configuration.

Client Libraries

Currently, there is only a high-level Go client library available. However, Liftbridge uses gRPC for its client API, so client libraries can be generated quite easily using the Liftbridge protobuf definitions .



  • Derek Collison and NATS team for building NATS and NATS Streaming and providing lots of inspiration.
  • Travis Jeffery for building Jocko , a Go implementation of Kafka. The Liftbridge log implementation builds heavily upon the commit log from Jocko.
  • Apache Kafka for inspiring large parts of the design, particularly around replication.

查看原文: Liftbridge: Lightweight, fault-tolerant message streams

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