python setup.py 浅析

RobertZebulon 发布于1年前

python setup.py 浅析

setuptools.setup() 参数说明

packages

对于所有 packages 列表里提到的纯 Python 模块做处理
需要在 setup 脚本里有一个包名到目录的映射。
默认对于 setup 脚本所在目录下同名的目录即视为包所在目录。
当你在 setup 脚本中写入 packages = ['foo'] 时, setup 脚本的同级目录下可以找到 foo/__init__.py。如果没有找到对应文件,disutils 不会直接报错,而是给出一个告警然后继续进行有问题的打包流程。

package_dir

阐明包名到目录的映射,见 packages

package_dir = {'': 'lib'}

键: 代表了包的名字,空的包名则代表 root package(不在任何包中的顶层包)。
值: 代表了对于 setup 脚本所在目录的相对路径.

packages = ['foo']
package_dir = {'': 'lib'}

指明包位于 lib/foo/, lib/foo/__init__.py 这个文件存在

另一种方法则是直接将 foo 这个包的内容全部放入 lib 而不是在 lib 下建一个 foo 目录

package_dir = {'foo': 'lib'}

一个在 package_dir 字典中的 package: dir 映射会对当前包下的所有包都生效, 所以 foo.bar 会自动生效. 在这个例子当中, packages = ['foo', 'foo.bar'] 告诉 distutils 去寻找 lib/__init__.pylib/bar/__init__.py.

py_modules

对于一个相对较小的模块的发布,你可能更想要列出所有模块而不是列出所有的包,尤其是对于那种根目录下就是一个简单模块的类型.
这描述了两个包,一个在根目录下,另一个则在 pkg 目录下。
默认的“包:目录”映射关系表明你可以在 setup 脚本所在的路径下找到 mod1.py 和 pkg/mod2.py。
当然,你也可以用 package_dir 选项重写这层映射关系就是了。

cmdclass

定制化命令,通过继承 setuptools.command 下的命令类来进行定制化

class UploadCommand(Command):
    """Support setup.py upload."""
    ...

    def run(self):
        try:
            self.status('Removing previous builds…')
            rmtree(os.path.join(here, 'dist'))
        except OSError:
            pass

        self.status('Building Source and Wheel (universal) distribution…')
        os.system('{0} setup.py sdist bdist_wheel --universal'.format(sys.executable))

        self.status('Uploading the package to PyPI via Twine…')
        os.system('twine upload dist/*')

        self.status('Pushing git tags…')
        os.system('git tag v{0}'.format(about['__version__']))
        os.system('git push --tags')

        sys.exit()

setup(
    ...
    # $ setup.py publish support.
    cmdclass={
        'upload': UploadCommand,
    },
)

这样可以通过 python setup.py upload 运行打包上传代码

install_requires

安装这个包所需要的依赖,列表

tests_require

与 install_requires 作用相似,单元测试时所需要的依赖

虚拟运行环境下安装包

legit 为例

  • 下载 lgit 源码
    git clone https://github.com/kennethreitz/legit.git
  • 创建虚拟运行环境
    virtualenv --no-site-packages venv
    运行环境目录结构为:

    venv/
    ├── bin
    ├── include
    ├── lib
    ├── local
    └── pip-selfcheck.json
  • 打包工程
    python3 setup.py sdist bdist_wheel

    .
    ├── AUTHORS
    ├── build
    │   ├── bdist.linux-x86_64
    │   └── lib.linux-x86_64-2.7
    ├── dist
    │   ├── legit-1.0.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl
    │   └── legit-1.0.1.tar.gz

    在 dist 下生成了安装包

  • 进入虚拟环境
    source venv/bin/activate
  • 安装包
    pip install ./dist/legit-1.0.1.tar.gz

    Successfully built legit args clint
    Installing collected packages: appdirs, args, click, lint, colorama, crayons, smmap2, gitdb2, GitPython, ix, pyparsing, packaging, legit
    Successfully installed GitPython-2.1.8 appdirs-1.4.3 rgs-0.1.0 click-6.7 clint-0.5.1 colorama-0.4.0 rayons-0.1.2 gitdb2-2.0.3 legit-1.0.1 packaging-17.1 yparsing-2.2.0 six-1.11.0 smmap2-2.0.3
    

安装过程分析

venv/lib/python2.7/site-packages/ 下安装了 legit 及依赖包

legit/venv/lib/python2.7/site-packages$ tree -L 1

.
├── appdirs-1.4.3.dist-info
├── appdirs.py
├── appdirs.pyc
├── args-0.1.0.dist-info
├── args.py
├── args.pyc
├── click
├── click-6.7.dist-info
├── clint
├── clint-0.5.1.dist-info
├── colorama
├── colorama-0.4.0.dist-info
├── crayons-0.1.2.dist-info
├── crayons.py
├── crayons.pyc
├── easy_install.py
├── easy_install.pyc
├── git
├── gitdb
├── gitdb2-2.0.3.dist-info
├── GitPython-2.1.8.dist-info
├── legit
├── legit-1.0.1.dist-info
├── packaging
├── packaging-17.1.dist-info
├── pip
├── pip-18.1.dist-info
├── pkg_resources
├── pyparsing-2.2.0.dist-info
├── pyparsing.py
├── pyparsing.pyc
├── setuptools
├── setuptools-40.6.2.dist-info
├── six-1.11.0.dist-info
├── six.py
├── six.pyc
├── smmap
├── smmap2-2.0.3.dist-info
├── wheel
└── wheel-0.32.2.dist-info

venv/bin 下新增可执行文件 legit, 内容为

#!/home/turtlebot/learn/python/legit/venv/bin/python

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
import re
import sys

from legit.cli import cli

if __name__ == '__main__':
    sys.argv[0] = re.sub(r'(-script\.pyw?|\.exe)?$', '', sys.argv[0])
    sys.exit(cli())

此时,可以直接运行

>>> legit

setup.py 分析

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

import os
import sys
from codecs import open  # To use a consistent encoding

from setuptools import setup  # Always prefer setuptools over distutils

APP_NAME = 'legit'
APP_SCRIPT = './legit_r'
VERSION = '1.0.1'


# Grab requirements.
with open('reqs.txt') as f:
    required = f.readlines()


settings = dict()


# Publish Helper.
if sys.argv[-1] == 'publish':
    os.system('python setup.py sdist bdist_wheel upload')
    sys.exit()


if sys.argv[-1] == 'build_manpage':
    os.system('rst2man.py README.rst > extra/man/legit.1')
    sys.exit()


# Build Helper.
if sys.argv[-1] == 'build':
    import py2exe  # noqa
    sys.argv.append('py2exe')

    settings.update(
        console=[{'script': APP_SCRIPT}],
        zipfile=None,
        options={
            'py2exe': {
                'compressed': 1,
                'optimize': 0,
                'bundle_files': 1}})

settings.update(
    name=APP_NAME,
    version=VERSION,
    description='Git for Humans.',
    long_description=open('README.rst').read(),
    author='Kenneth Reitz',
    author_email='me@kennethreitz.com',
    url='https://github.com/kennethreitz/legit',
    packages=['legit'],
    install_requires=required,
    license='BSD',
    classifiers=[
        'Development Status :: 5 - Production/Stable',
        'Intended Audience :: Developers',
        'Natural Language :: English',
        'License :: OSI Approved :: BSD License',
        'Programming Language :: Python',
        'Programming Language :: Python :: 2',
        'Programming Language :: Python :: 2.7',
        'Programming Language :: Python :: 3',
        'Programming Language :: Python :: 3.4',
        'Programming Language :: Python :: 3.5',
        'Programming Language :: Python :: 3.6',
    ],
    entry_points={
        'console_scripts': [
            'legit = legit.cli:cli',
        ],
    }
)


setup(**settings)
  • packages=['legit'] 引入 legit 目录下的所有默认引入文件
  • install_requires=required 指明安装时需要额外安装的第三方库
  • 'console_scripts': ['legit = legit.cli:cli',] 生成可执行控制台程序,程序名为 legit, 运行 legit.cli 中的 cli()函数。最终会在 bin/ 下生成 legit 可执行 py 文件,调用制定的函数

setup.py 实例分析

kennethreitz/setup.py

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

# Note: To use the 'upload' functionality of this file, you must:
#   $ pip install twine

import io
import os
import sys
from shutil import rmtree

from setuptools import find_packages, setup, Command

# Package meta-data.
NAME = 'mypackage'
DESCRIPTION = 'My short description for my project.'
URL = 'https://github.com/me/myproject'
EMAIL = 'me@example.com'
AUTHOR = 'Awesome Soul'
REQUIRES_PYTHON = '>=3.6.0'
VERSION = None

# What packages are required for this module to be executed?
REQUIRED = [
    # 'requests', 'maya', 'records',
]

# What packages are optional?
EXTRAS = {
    # 'fancy feature': ['django'],
}

# The rest you shouldn't have to touch too much :)
# ------------------------------------------------
# Except, perhaps the License and Trove Classifiers!
# If you do change the License, remember to change the Trove Classifier for that!

here = os.path.abspath(os.path.dirname(__file__))

# Import the README and use it as the long-description.
# Note: this will only work if 'README.md' is present in your MANIFEST.in file!
try:
    with io.open(os.path.join(here, 'README.md'), encoding='utf-8') as f:
        long_description = '\n' + f.read()
except FileNotFoundError:
    long_description = DESCRIPTION

# Load the package's __version__.py module as a dictionary.
about = {}
if not VERSION:
    with open(os.path.join(here, NAME, '__version__.py')) as f:
        exec(f.read(), about)
else:
    about['__version__'] = VERSION


class UploadCommand(Command):
    """Support setup.py upload."""

    description = 'Build and publish the package.'
    user_options = []

    @staticmethod
    def status(s):
        """Prints things in bold."""
        print('\033[1m{0}\033[0m'.format(s))

    def initialize_options(self):
        pass

    def finalize_options(self):
        pass

    def run(self):
        try:
            self.status('Removing previous builds…')
            rmtree(os.path.join(here, 'dist'))
        except OSError:
            pass

        self.status('Building Source and Wheel (universal) distribution…')
        os.system('{0} setup.py sdist bdist_wheel --universal'.format(sys.executable))

        self.status('Uploading the package to PyPI via Twine…')
        os.system('twine upload dist/*')

        self.status('Pushing git tags…')
        os.system('git tag v{0}'.format(about['__version__']))
        os.system('git push --tags')

        sys.exit()


# Where the magic happens:
setup(
    name=NAME,
    version=about['__version__'],
    description=DESCRIPTION,
    long_description=long_description,
    long_description_content_type='text/markdown',
    author=AUTHOR,
    author_email=EMAIL,
    python_requires=REQUIRES_PYTHON,
    url=URL,
    packages=find_packages(exclude=('tests',)),
    # If your package is a single module, use this instead of 'packages':
    # py_modules=['mypackage'],

    # entry_points={
    #     'console_scripts': ['mycli=mymodule:cli'],
    # },
    install_requires=REQUIRED,
    extras_require=EXTRAS,
    include_package_data=True,
    license='MIT',
    classifiers=[
        # Trove classifiers
        # Full list: https://pypi.python.org/pypi?%3Aaction=list_classifiers
        'License :: OSI Approved :: MIT License',
        'Programming Language :: Python',
        'Programming Language :: Python :: 3',
        'Programming Language :: Python :: 3.6',
        'Programming Language :: Python :: Implementation :: CPython',
        'Programming Language :: Python :: Implementation :: PyPy'
    ],
    # $ setup.py publish support.
    cmdclass={
        'upload': UploadCommand,
    },
)

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