npm管理工具介绍

ctolib 发布于2年前
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概述

Npm是NodeJS包管理工具,在最新版本中Nodejs集成了npm,可以通过输入 "npm -v" 来测试是否成功安装。如果你安装的是旧版本的 npm,可以通过 npm 命令来升级,命令如下:

 

sudo npm install npm -g

 

 

在以下几种情况中我们常用到npm:

 

  • 允许用户从NPM服务器下载别人编写的第三方包到本地使用。
  • 允许用户从NPM服务器下载并安装别人编写的命令行程序到本地使用。
  • 允许用户将自己编写的包或命令行程序上传到NPM服务器供别人使用。

npm 命令安装模块

npm 安装 Node.js 模块语法格式如下:

npm install <Module Name>

如:我们使用 npm 命令安装常用的 Node.js web框架模块 express。

npm install express

安装好之后,express 包就放在了工程目录下的 node_modules 目录中,因此在代码中只需要通过 require('express') 的方式就好,无需指定第三方包路径。

var express = require('express');

如果我们安装到自定义的目录:

npm install hexo-demo --save

本地安装

1. 将安装包放在 ./node_modules 下(运行 npm 命令时所在的目录),如果没有 node_modules 目录,会在当前执行 npm 命令的目录下生成 node_modules 目录。
2. 可以通过 require() 来引入本地安装的包。

安装过程如下:

可以使用以下命令来查看所有全局安装的模块:

npm ls -g

package.json文件解析

一般我们会在项目的node_modules/express/package.json看到package.json文件。文件内容如下:

{
  "name": "express",
  "description": "Fast, unopinionated, minimalist web framework",
  "version": "4.13.3",
  "author": {
    "name": "TJ Holowaychuk",
    "email": "tj@vision-media.ca"
  },
  "contributors": [
    {
      "name": "Aaron Heckmann",
      "email": "aaron.heckmann+github@gmail.com"
    },
    {
      "name": "Ciaran Jessup",
      "email": "ciaranj@gmail.com"
    },
    {
      "name": "Douglas Christopher Wilson",
      "email": "doug@somethingdoug.com"
    },
    {
      "name": "Guillermo Rauch",
      "email": "rauchg@gmail.com"
    },
    {
      "name": "Jonathan Ong",
      "email": "me@jongleberry.com"
    },
    {
      "name": "Roman Shtylman",
      "email": "shtylman+expressjs@gmail.com"
    },
    {
      "name": "Young Jae Sim",
      "email": "hanul@hanul.me"
    }
  ],
  "license": "MIT",
  "repository": {
    "type": "git",
    "url": "git+https://github.com/strongloop/express.git"
  },
  "homepage": "http://expressjs.com/",
  "keywords": [
    "express",
    "framework",
    "sinatra",
    "web",
    "rest",
    "restful",
    "router",
    "app",
    "api"
  ],
  "dependencies": {
    "accepts": "~1.2.12",
    "array-flatten": "1.1.1",
    "content-disposition": "0.5.0",
    "content-type": "~1.0.1",
    "cookie": "0.1.3",
    "cookie-signature": "1.0.6",
    "debug": "~2.2.0",
    "depd": "~1.0.1",
    "escape-html": "1.0.2",
    "etag": "~1.7.0",
    "finalhandler": "0.4.0",
    "fresh": "0.3.0",
    "merge-descriptors": "1.0.0",
    "methods": "~1.1.1",
    "on-finished": "~2.3.0",
    "parseurl": "~1.3.0",
    "path-to-regexp": "0.1.7",
    "proxy-addr": "~1.0.8",
    "qs": "4.0.0",
    "range-parser": "~1.0.2",
    "send": "0.13.0",
    "serve-static": "~1.10.0",
    "type-is": "~1.6.6",
    "utils-merge": "1.0.0",
    "vary": "~1.0.1"
  },
  "devDependencies": {
    "after": "0.8.1",
    "ejs": "2.3.3",
    "istanbul": "0.3.17",
    "marked": "0.3.5",
    "mocha": "2.2.5",
    "should": "7.0.2",
    "supertest": "1.0.1",
    "body-parser": "~1.13.3",
    "connect-redis": "~2.4.1",
    "cookie-parser": "~1.3.5",
    "cookie-session": "~1.2.0",
    "express-session": "~1.11.3",
    "jade": "~1.11.0",
    "method-override": "~2.3.5",
    "morgan": "~1.6.1",
    "multiparty": "~4.1.2",
    "vhost": "~3.0.1"
  },
  "engines": {
    "node": ">= 0.10.0"
  },
  "files": [
    "LICENSE",
    "History.md",
    "Readme.md",
    "index.js",
    "lib/"
  ],
  "scripts": {
    "test": "mocha --require test/support/env --reporter spec --bail --check-leaks test/ test/acceptance/",
    "test-ci": "istanbul cover node_modules/mocha/bin/_mocha --report lcovonly -- --require test/support/env --reporter spec --check-leaks test/ test/acceptance/",
    "test-cov": "istanbul cover node_modules/mocha/bin/_mocha -- --require test/support/env --reporter dot --check-leaks test/ test/acceptance/",
    "test-tap": "mocha --require test/support/env --reporter tap --check-leaks test/ test/acceptance/"
  },
  "gitHead": "ef7ad681b245fba023843ce94f6bcb8e275bbb8e",
  "bugs": {
    "url": "https://github.com/strongloop/express/issues"
  },
  "_id": "express@4.13.3",
  "_shasum": "ddb2f1fb4502bf33598d2b032b037960ca6c80a3",
  "_from": "express@*",
  "_npmVersion": "1.4.28",
  "_npmUser": {
    "name": "dougwilson",
    "email": "doug@somethingdoug.com"
  },
  "maintainers": [
    {
      "name": "tjholowaychuk",
      "email": "tj@vision-media.ca"
    },
    {
      "name": "jongleberry",
      "email": "jonathanrichardong@gmail.com"
    },
    {
      "name": "dougwilson",
      "email": "doug@somethingdoug.com"
    },
    {
      "name": "rfeng",
      "email": "enjoyjava@gmail.com"
    },
    {
      "name": "aredridel",
      "email": "aredridel@dinhe.net"
    },
    {
      "name": "strongloop",
      "email": "callback@strongloop.com"
    },
    {
      "name": "defunctzombie",
      "email": "shtylman@gmail.com"
    }
  ],
  "dist": {
    "shasum": "ddb2f1fb4502bf33598d2b032b037960ca6c80a3",
    "tarball": "http://registry.npmjs.org/express/-/express-4.13.3.tgz"
  },
  "directories": {},
  "_resolved": "https://registry.npmjs.org/express/-/express-4.13.3.tgz",
  "readme": "ERROR: No README data found!"
}

再看我们之前搭建自己博客的时候的packege.json文件

{
  "name": "hexo-site",
  "version": "0.0.0",
  "private": true,
  "hexo": {
    "version": "3.2.2"
  },
  "dependencies": {
    "hexo": "^3.2.2",
    "hexo-clean-css": "0.0.2",
    "hexo-deployer-git": "^0.2.0",
    "hexo-generator-archive": "^0.1.4",
    "hexo-generator-baidu-sitemap": "^0.1.2",
    "hexo-generator-category": "^0.1.3",
    "hexo-generator-feed": "^1.2.0",
    "hexo-generator-index": "^0.2.0",
    "hexo-generator-sitemap": "^1.1.2",
    "hexo-generator-tag": "^0.2.0",
    "hexo-html-minifier": "0.0.1",
    "hexo-renderer-ejs": "^0.2.0",
    "hexo-renderer-marked": "^0.2.10",
    "hexo-renderer-stylus": "^0.3.1",
    "hexo-server": "^0.2.0",
    "hexo-uglify": "0.0.3"
  }
}

Package.json 属性说明:

  • name - 包名。
  • version - 包的版本号。
  • description - 包的描述。
  • homepage - 包的官网 url 。
  • author - 包的作者姓名。
  • contributors - 包的其他贡献者姓名。
  • dependencies - 依赖包列表。如果依赖包没有安装,npm 会自动将依赖包安装在 node_module 目录下。
  • repository - 包代码存放的地方的类型,可以是 git 或 svn,git 可在 Github 上。
  • main - main 字段是一个模块ID,它是一个指向你程序的主要项目。就是说,如果你包的名字叫 express,然后用户安装它,然后require("express")。
  • keywords - 关键字

卸载包

npm uninstall express

可以到 /node_modules/ 目录下查看包是否还存在,或者使用以下命令查看

npm ls

更新包

Package.json 属性说明:

npm update 包名(expree)

创建模块

创建模块,package.json 文件是必不可少的。我们可以使用 NPM 生成 package.json 文件,生成的文件包含了基本的结果。

npm init
This utility will walk you through creating a package.json file.
It only covers the most common items, and tries to guess sensible defaults.

See `npm help json` for definitive documentation on these fields
and exactly what they do.

Use `npm install <pkg> --save` afterwards to install a package and
save it as a dependency in the package.json file.

Press ^C at any time to quit.
name: (node_modules) runoob                   # 模块名
version: (1.0.0) 
description: Node.js 测试模块(www.runoob.com)  # 描述
entry point: (index.js) 
test command: make test
git repository: https://github.com/runoob/runoob.git  # Github 地址
keywords: 
author: 
license: (ISC) 
About to write to ……/node_modules/package.json:      # 生成地址

{
  "name": "runoob",
  "version": "1.0.0",
  "description": "Node.js 测试模块(www.runoob.com)",
  ……
}


Is this ok? (yes) yes

发布模块(取消发布)

npm publish/unpublish

npm其他常用的命令

常用的其他命令有:

  • Package.json 属性说明:
  • NPM提供了很多命令,例如install和publish,使用npm help可查看所有命令。
  • 使用npm help <command>可查看某条命令的详细帮助,例如npm help install。
  • 在package.json所在目录下使用npm install . -g可先在本地安装当前命令行程序,可用于发布前的本地测试。
  • 使用npm update <package>可以把当前目录下node_modules子目录里边的对应模块更新至最新版本。
  • 使用npm update <package> -g可以把全局安装的对应命令行程序更新至最新版。
  • 使用npm cache clear可以清空NPM本地缓存,用于对付使用相同版本号发布新版本代码的人。

参考:http://www.runoob.com/nodejs/nodejs-npm.html
 

 

Package.json 属性说明: