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结构体

Go 语言中数组可以存储同一类型的数据,但在结构体中我们可以为不同项定义不同的数据类型。
结构体是由一系列具有相同类型或不同类型的数据构成的数据集合。

type struct_variable_type struct {
   member definition;
   member definition;
   ...
   member definition;
}

一旦定义了结构体类型,它就能用于变量的声明

variable_name := structure_variable_type {value1, value2...valuen}

初始化结构体

1.按照顺序提供初始化值
P := person{"Tom", 25}
2.通过field:value的方式初始化,这样可以任意顺序
P := person{age:24, name:"Tom"}

访问结构体成员

package main

import "fmt"

type Books struct {
   title string
   author string
   subject string
   book_id int
}

func main() {
   var Book1 Books        /* 声明 Book1 为 Books 类型 */
   var Book2 Books        /* 声明 Book2 为 Books 类型 */

   /* book 1 描述 */
   Book1.title = "Go 语言"
   Book1.author = "www.runoob.com"
   Book1.subject = "Go 语言教程"
   Book1.book_id = 6495407

   /* book 2 描述 */
   Book2.title = "Python 教程"
   Book2.author = "www.runoob.com"
   Book2.subject = "Python 语言教程"
   Book2.book_id = 6495700

   /* 打印 Book1 信息 */
   fmt.Printf( "Book 1 title : %s\n", Book1.title)
   fmt.Printf( "Book 1 author : %s\n", Book1.author)
   fmt.Printf( "Book 1 subject : %s\n", Book1.subject)
   fmt.Printf( "Book 1 book_id : %d\n", Book1.book_id)

   /* 打印 Book2 信息 */
   fmt.Printf( "Book 2 title : %s\n", Book2.title)
   fmt.Printf( "Book 2 author : %s\n", Book2.author)
   fmt.Printf( "Book 2 subject : %s\n", Book2.subject)
   fmt.Printf( "Book 2 book_id : %d\n", Book2.book_id)
}

结果

Book 1 title : Go 语言
Book 1 author : www.runoob.com
Book 1 subject : Go 语言教程
Book 1 book_id : 6495407
Book 2 title : Python 教程
Book 2 author : www.runoob.com
Book 2 subject : Python 语言教程
Book 2 book_id : 6495700

结构体作为函数参数

ackage main

import "fmt"

type Books struct {
   title string
   author string
   subject string
   book_id int
}

func main() {
   var Book1 Books        /* 声明 Book1 为 Books 类型 */
   var Book2 Books        /* 声明 Book2 为 Books 类型 */

   /* book 1 描述 */
   Book1.title = "Go 语言"
   Book1.author = "www.runoob.com"
   Book1.subject = "Go 语言教程"
   Book1.book_id = 6495407

   /* book 2 描述 */
   Book2.title = "Python 教程"
   Book2.author = "www.runoob.com"
   Book2.subject = "Python 语言教程"
   Book2.book_id = 6495700

   /* 打印 Book1 信息 */
   printBook(Book1)

   /* 打印 Book2 信息 */
   printBook(Book2)
}

func printBook( book Books ) {
   fmt.Printf( "Book title : %s\n", book.title);
   fmt.Printf( "Book author : %s\n", book.author);
   fmt.Printf( "Book subject : %s\n", book.subject);
   fmt.Printf( "Book book_id : %d\n", book.book_id);
}

结构体的匿名字段

在类型中,使用不写字段名的方式,使用另一个类型

type Human struct {
    name string
    age int
    weight int
} 
type Student struct {
    Human // 匿名字段,那么默认Student就包含了Human的所有字段
    speciality string
} 
func main() {
    // 我们初始化一个学生
    mark := Student{Human{"Mark", 25, 120}, "Computer Science"}
    // 我们访问相应的字段
    fmt.Println("His name is ", mark.name)
    fmt.Println("His age is ", mark.age)
    fmt.Println("His weight is ", mark.weight)
    fmt.Println("His speciality is ", mark.speciality)
    // 修改对应的备注信息
    mark.speciality = "AI"
    fmt.Println("Mark changed his speciality")
    fmt.Println("His speciality is ", mark.speciality)
    // 修改他的年龄信息
    fmt.Println("Mark become old")
    mark.age = 46
    fmt.Println("His age is", mark.age)
    // 修改他的体重信息
    fmt.Println("Mark is not an athlet anymore")
    mark.weight += 60
    fmt.Println("His weight is", mark.weight)
}

可以使用”.”的方式进行调用匿名字段中的属性值

实际就是字段的继承

其中可以将匿名字段理解为字段名和字段类型都是同一个

基于上面的理解,所以可以mark.Human = Human{"Marcus", 55, 220}mark.Human.age -= 1

若存在匿名字段中的字段与非匿名字段名字相同,则最外层的优先访问(重载)

通过匿名访问和修改字段相当的有用,但是不仅仅是struct字段哦,所有的内置类型和自定义类型都是可以作为匿名字段的。

结构体指针

var struct_pointer *Books

以上定义的指针变量可以存储结构体变量的地址。查看结构体变量地址,可以将 & 符号放置于结构体变量前

struct_pointer = &Book1;

使用结构体指针访问结构体成员,使用 “.” 操作符

struct_pointer.title;
package main

import "fmt"

type Books struct {
   title string
   author string
   subject string
   book_id int
}

func main() {
   var Book1 Books        /* Declare Book1 of type Book */
   var Book2 Books        /* Declare Book2 of type Book */

   /* book 1 描述 */
   Book1.title = "Go 语言"
   Book1.author = "www.runoob.com"
   Book1.subject = "Go 语言教程"
   Book1.book_id = 6495407

   /* book 2 描述 */
   Book2.title = "Python 教程"
   Book2.author = "www.runoob.com"
   Book2.subject = "Python 语言教程"
   Book2.book_id = 6495700

   /* 打印 Book1 信息 */
   printBook(&Book1)

   /* 打印 Book2 信息 */
   printBook(&Book2)
}
func printBook( book *Books ) {
   fmt.Printf( "Book title : %s\n", book.title);
   fmt.Printf( "Book author : %s\n", book.author);
   fmt.Printf( "Book subject : %s\n", book.subject);
   fmt.Printf( "Book book_id : %d\n", book.book_id);
}

结构体实例化也可以是这样的

package main

import "fmt"

type Books struct {
}

func (s Books) String() string {
    return "data"
}
func main() {
    fmt.Printf("%v\n", Books{})
}

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