Network, Service & Security Observability for Kubernetes
What is Hubble?
Hubble is a fully distributed networking and security observability platform for cloud native workloads. It is built on top of Cilium and eBPF to enable deep visibility into the communication and behavior of services as well as the networking infrastructure in a completely transparent manner.
Hubble can answer questions such as:
Service dependencies & communication map:
- What services are communicating with each other? How frequently? What does the service dependency graph look like?
- What HTTP calls are being made? What Kafka topics does a service consume from or produce to?
Operational monitoring & alerting:
- Is any network communication failing? Why is communication failing? Is it DNS? Is it an application or network problem? Is the communication broken on layer 4 (TCP) or layer 7 (HTTP)?
- Which services have experienced a DNS resolution problems in the last 5 minutes? Which services have experienced an interrupted TCP connection recently or have seen connections timing out? What is the rate of unanswered TCP SYN requests?
- What is the rate of 5xx or 4xx HTTP response codes for a particular service or across all clusters?
- What is the 95th and 99th percentile latency between HTTP requests and responses in my cluster? Which services are performing the worst? What is the latency between two services?
- Which services had connections blocked due to network policy? What services have been accessed from outside the cluster? Which services have resolved a particular DNS name?
The Linux kernel technology eBPF is enabling visibility into systems and applications at a granularity and efficiency that was not possible before. It does so in a completely transparent way, without requiring the application to change or for the application to hide information. By building on top of Cilium, Hubble can leverage eBPF for visibility. By relying on eBPF, all visibility is programmable and allows for a dynamic approach that minimizes overhead while providing deep and detailed visibility where required. Hubble has been created and specifically designed to make best use of these new eBPF powers.
Feature Stability State
Hubble is currently in beta stage. We encourage contributions and feedback to mature it to a stable, production stage as quickly as possible. In particular this means:
- Not all components of Hubble are covered by automated testing yet
- Even though the architecture is very scalable by nature, not all codepaths have been optimized for efficiency and scalability yet.
- There are known limitations which are on the roadmap to be optimized before declaring Hubble stable.
Service Dependency Graph
Troubleshooting microservices application connectivity is a challenging task. Simply looking at "kubectl get pods" does not indicate dependencies between each service or external APIs or databases.
Hubble enables zero-effort automatic discovery of the service dependency graph for Kubernetes Clusters at L3/L4 and even L7, allowing user-friendly visualization and filtering of those dataflows as a Service Map.
See Hubble Service Map Tutorial for more examples.
Metrics & Monitoring
The metrics and monitoring functionality provides an overview of the state of systems and allow to recognize patterns indicating failure and other scenarios that require action. The following is a short list of example metrics, for a more detailed list of examples, see the Metrics Documentation.
Network Policy Observation
HTTP Request/Response Rate & Latency
DNS Request/Response Monitoring
Flow visibility provides visibility into flow information on the network and application protocol level. This enables visibility into individual TCP connections, DNS queries, HTTP requests, Kafka communication, and much more.
Identifying pods which have received DNS response indicating failure:
hubble observe --since=1m -t l7 -j \ | jq 'select(.l7.dns.rcode==3) | .destination.namespace + "/" + .destination.pod_name' \ | sort | uniq -c | sort -r 42 "starwars/jar-jar-binks-6f5847c97c-qmggv"
Successful query & response:
starwars/x-wing-bd86d75c5-njv8k kube-system/coredns-5c98db65d4-twwdg DNS Query deathstar.starwars.svc.cluster.local. A kube-system/coredns-5c98db65d4-twwdg starwars/x-wing-bd86d75c5-njv8k DNS Answer "10.110.126.213" TTL: 3 (Query deathstar.starwars.svc.cluster.local. A)
starwars/jar-jar-binks-789c4b695d-ltrzm kube-system/coredns-5c98db65d4-f4m8n DNS Query unknown-galaxy.svc.cluster.local. A starwars/jar-jar-binks-789c4b695d-ltrzm kube-system/coredns-5c98db65d4-f4m8n DNS Query unknown-galaxy.svc.cluster.local. AAAA kube-system/coredns-5c98db65d4-twwdg starwars/jar-jar-binks-789c4b695d-ltrzm DNS Answer RCode: Non-Existent Domain TTL: 4294967295 (Query unknown-galaxy.starwars.svc.cluster.local. A) kube-system/coredns-5c98db65d4-twwdg starwars/jar-jar-binks-789c4b695d-ltrzm DNS Answer RCode: Non-Existent Domain TTL: 4294967295 (Query unknown-galaxy.starwars.svc.cluster.local. AAAA)
Successful request & response with latency information:
starwars/x-wing-bd86d75c5-njv8k:53410 starwars/deathstar-695d8f7ddc-lvj84:80 HTTP/1.1 GET http://deathstar/ starwars/deathstar-695d8f7ddc-lvj84:80 starwars/x-wing-bd86d75c5-njv8k:53410 HTTP/1.1 200 1ms (GET http://deathstar/)
Successful TCP connection:
starwars/x-wing-bd86d75c5-njv8k:53410 starwars/deathstar-695d8f7ddc-lvj84:80 TCP Flags: SYN deathstar.starwars.svc.cluster.local:80 starwars/x-wing-bd86d75c5-njv8k:53410 TCP Flags: SYN, ACK starwars/x-wing-bd86d75c5-njv8k:53410 starwars/deathstar-695d8f7ddc-lvj84:80 TCP Flags: ACK, FIN deathstar.starwars.svc.cluster.local:80 starwars/x-wing-bd86d75c5-njv8k:53410 TCP Flags: ACK, FIN
starwars/r2d2-6694d57947-xwhtz:60948 deathstar.starwars.svc.cluster.local:8080 TCP Flags: SYN starwars/r2d2-6694d57947-xwhtz:60948 deathstar.starwars.svc.cluster.local:8080 TCP Flags: SYN starwars/r2d2-6694d57947-xwhtz:60948 deathstar.starwars.svc.cluster.local:8080 TCP Flags: SYN
Network Policy Behavior
Denied connection attempt:
starwars/enterprise-5775b56c4b-thtwl:37800 starwars/deathstar-695d8f7ddc-lvj84:80(http) Policy denied (L3) TCP Flags: SYN starwars/enterprise-5775b56c4b-thtwl:37800 starwars/deathstar-695d8f7ddc-lvj84:80(http) Policy denied (L3) TCP Flags: SYN starwars/enterprise-5775b56c4b-thtwl:37800 starwars/deathstar-695d8f7ddc-lvj84:80(http) Policy denied (L3) TCP Flags: SYN
Hubble is an open source project licensed under the Apache License. Everybody is welcome to contribute. The project is following the Governance Rules of the Cilium project. See CONTRIBUTING for instructions on how to contribute and details of the Code of Conduct.